This document includes cards for you to print out to randomize activities for your students. These exercises will allow you to vary actions, animals, emotional contexts, and different ways of talking. My students brainstormed many of these options. During these activities, students will need to self-monitor while doing something else, which correlates with real communication and results in greater generalization. Students who self-monitor during activities in the speech/language room are more likely to generalize to all communicative contexts (Koegel, Koegel, Van Voy & Ingham, 1988).
According to motor learning theory, there are three phases of acquisition: 1. pre-practice/placement (when the child learns how to produce the sound in isolation and syllables until 80% accuracy), 2. practice (when the child practices at different levels of difficulty - sounds, syllables, words, phrases, sentences and conversation - in varied activities), and 3. generalization (Skelton, 2004). Randomized practice has been shown to facilitate retention and generalization of sounds (Skelton, 2005). Furthermore, this approach advocates that practice should consist of connected, meaningful speech because that is how we actually communicate. Hoffman and Norris (2005) suggested that intervention that is independent of communication (i.e. drill only) often results in the child defaulting to the old motor pattern of speech during actual communication. This would, of course, inhibit generalization and extend treatment time.
Students appreciate randomized activities because they are fun and keep them on their toes. One way to randomize is for students to practice at different levels (sounds, syllables, words, phrases, sentences and conversation) within the same session. Others include different numbers of practicing targets or practicing words in different orders. These cards will allow you to randomize treatment in other ways that lets kids be kids.
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