These handouts provide an overview of the complexity approach to share with families in English and Spanish.

This document provides an overview regarding how to apply complexity principles for children who present with mild articulation disorders, a primary difficulty with clusters or phonological disorders.

This resource displays a hierarchy of clusters that demonstrates that some clusters are more complex than others and that these should be targeted to create the most change.

These documents feature a step-by-step sequence that allows SLPs to fully describe and analyze each child’s phonological system in both English and Spanish.

This is a comprehensive word list that includes high-frequency words and high- and low-density words. Researchers continue to investigate the interaction between lexicon and phonology.

This document summarizes implicational language laws identified in linguistic research. SLPs can utilize these implicational relationships to target complex sound classes and sound structures, which leads to significant gains in a child's phonological repertoire.

These worksheets (available in rows and columns) allow SLPs to identify each child’s phonemic inventory.

This resource includes play-based activities that yield maximum practice in natural contexts during treatment.

This document lists words that feature the ten most complex clusters in English, including /str-/, /skr-/, /spr-/, /skw-/, /spl-/, /sl-/, /fl-/, /fr-/, /shr-/ and /thr-/.

Target Selection Guides

SLPs may utilize two documents to select complex targets for children with phonological or articulation disorders. The first delineates a series of steps to select three-element clusters and/or two-element clusters. Please note that you will need assessment data to answer the questions. In particular, you will need data about a child's cluster inventory, phonemic inventory (especially /p t k w l r/), and the stimulability of OUT sounds.

The second document is appropriate for children who present with a few sounds in error. It provides a series of steps for choosing complex singletons that will lead to efficient gains.